Dr. F. C. Gwazdauskas
(David R. and Margaret Lincicome Professor of Dairy Science) 

Research Objectives:

Areas of research currently include studies involving lactating dairy cattle on different planes of nutrition. These cattle are used to evaluate follicular development, oocyte quality and embryo development following ultrasonic guided oocyte retrieval procedures. Endocrine aspects include evaluation of hormone changes associated with plane of nutrition and stage of lactation. Ovum pick-up procedures are used in cattle to obtain oocytes for in vitro fertilization and microinjection of DNA. Surgical recovery of zygotes has been used effectively for the production of transgenic swine and mice. Our main goal is in the production of animal ‘bioreactors’ that produce human blood proteins in their milk that can eventually be used therapeutically for the human population.



Dairy Goat Homepage



Educational Background

Bachelor of Science, University of Connecticut, 1966
Master of Science, University of Florida, 1972
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Florida, 1974



Courses

ALS 2304 Anatomy and Physiology

ALS 2504 Animals in Society
ALS 5304 Advanced Physiology and Anatomy of Domestic Animals
ALS 6314 Endocrinology



Graduate and Undergraduate Students



Selected Publications:

77. Gwazdauskas, F.C., R.L. Nebel, D.J. Sprecher, W.D. Whittier, and L. McGilliard. 1990. Effectiveness of rump-mounted devices and androgenized females for detection of estrus in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2965-2970.

79. Holt, L.C.*, R.M. Akers, C.J. Denbow, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and W.E. Vinson. 1991. Effect of gestational mastectomy on postpartum gonadotropin releasing hormone and thyrotropin releasing hormone induced luteinizing hormone and prolactin response in first calf Holstein heifers. J. Endocrinological Invest. 14:147-150.

80. Thuemmel, A.E.*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, R.S. Canseco*, R.E. Pearson, and Jochle. 1991. Culture of bovine embryos in deproteinized hemodialysate-supplemented media and immature mouse uterine horns. J. Dairy Sci. 74:1815-1820.

81. McCaffrey, C., T.G. McEvoy, M.G. Diskin, F.C. Gwazdauskas, M.T. Kane, and J.M. Sreenan. 1991. Successful co-culture of 1-4-cell cattle ova to the morula or blastocyst stage. J. Reprod. Fert. 91:119-124.

82. Sparks, A.E.T.*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and M.L. McGilliard. 1992. Culture of one-cell bovine embryos explanted mouse oviduct and bovine oviductal epithelial cells. Theriogenology 37:587-594.

83. Gwazdauskas, F.C., C. McCaffrey, T.G. McEvoy, and J.M. Sreenan. 1992. In vitro pre-implantation mouse embryo development with incubation temperatures of 37o and 39oC. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 9:149-154.

84. Velander, W.H., R.L. Page*, T. Morcol, C.G. Russell, R. Canseco*, M. Young, W.N. Drohan, F.C. Gwazdauskas, T.D. Wilkins, adn J.L. Johnson. 1992. Production of biologically active human protein C in the milk of transgenic mice. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 665:391-403.

85. Thuemmel, A.E.*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, W.D. Whittier, and M.L. McGilliard. 1992. Effect of progesterone supplementation in repeat breeder cattle on conception and plasma progesterone. Endocrinol. Invest. 15:393-396.

86. Williams, B.L.*, A.E.T. Sparks*, R.S. Canseco*, J.W. Knight, J.L. Johnson, W.H. Velander, R.L. Page*, W.N. Drohan, J.M. Young, R.E. Pearson, T.D. Wilkins, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1992. In vitro development of zygotes from prepubertal gilts following microinjection of DNA. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2207-2211.

87. Canseco, R.S.*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, R.J. Toole, R. Rajamahendran, D. Whittier, and W.E. Vinson. 1992. A retrospective study on the effects of FSH and prostaglandins on superovulation responses in dairy cattle. Va. J. Sci. 43:325-332.

88. Williams, B.L.*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and R.E. Pearson. 1992. The effect day of the estrous cycle, location of ovulatory structure and progesterone on in vitro bovine endometrial secretions. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2112-2118.

89. Velander, W.H., R.L. Page*, T. Morcol*, C.G. Russell*, J.L. Johnson, T.D. Wilkins, R. Canseco*, B.L. Williams*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, J.W. Knight, J.M. Young and W.N. Drohan. 1992. High level expression in the milk of transgenic swine using the cDNA encoding human protein C. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 89:12003-12007.

90. Williams, B.L.*, A.E.T. Sparks*, R.S. Canseco*, J.W. Knight, J.L. Johnson, W.H. Velander, R.L. Page*, W.N. Drohan, J.M. Young, E.T. Kornegay, R.E. Pearson, T.D. Wilkins and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1992. Evaluation of systems for collection of porcine zygotes for DNA microinjection and transfer. Theriogenology 38:501-511.

91. Canseco, R.S.*, A.E.T. Sparks*, R.E. Pearson and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1992. Embryo density and media volume effects on early murine embryo development. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 9:437-440.

92. Canseco, R.S.*, A.T. Sparks*, C.G. Russell*, R.L. Page*, J.L. Johnson, W.H. Velander, W.N. Drohan, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1992. Influence of DNA microinjection on embryo development. Proc. 12th Intern. Cong. Anim. Reprod. 4:1764-1766.

93. Velander, W.H., A. Subramanian, A.W. Degner, J.L. Johnson, T.D. Wilkins, F.C. Gwazdauskas, R.M. Akers, H. Lubon, and W.N. Drohan. 1992. Expression of human protein C in transgenic swine. ACS Conf. Proc. p 34-37.

97. Sparks, A.E.T.*, R.S. Canseco*, C.G. Russell*, J.L. Johnson, R.L. Page, W.H. Velander, M.L. McGilliard, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Evaluation of bovine morula bisection and biopsy as cell acquisition techniques for DNA amplication by the polymerase chain reaction. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 35:1-7.

98. Sparks, A.E.T.*, R.S. Canseco*, C.G. Russell*, J.L. Johnson, H.D. Moll, W.H. Velander, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Effects of time of deoxyribonucleic acid microinjection on gene detection and in vitro development of bovine embryos. J. Dairy Sci. 77:718-724.

99. Krisher, R.L.*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, R.L. Page*, C.G. Russell*, R.S. Canseco, A.E.T. Sparks, W.H. Velander, J.L. Johnson, and R.E. Pearson. 1994. Ovulation rate, zygote recovery and follicular population in FSH-superovulated goats treated with PGF2" and GnRH. Theriogenology 41:491-498.

100. Canseco, R.S.*, A.E.T. Sparks*, R.L. Page*, C.G. Russell*, J.L. Johnson, W.H. Velander, R.E. Pearson, W.N. Drohan, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Gene transfer efficiency during gestation and the influence of co-transfer of non-manipulated embryos on production of transgenic mice. Transgenic Res. 3:20-25.

101. Morcol, T., R.M. Akers, J.L. Johnson, B.L. Williams, F.C. Gwazdauskas, J.W. Knight, H.K. Lubon, R.K. Paleyanda, W.N. Drohan, and W.H. Velander. 1994. The porcine mammary gland as a bioreactor for complex proteins. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 721:218-233.

102. Hadju, M.A.*, J.W. Knight, R.S. Canseco, R.L. Krisher, W.H. Velander, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Effect of culture conditions, donor age, and injection site on in vitro development of DNA microinjected porcine zygotes. J. Animal Sci. 72:1299-1305.

103. Krisher, R.L.*, J.R. Gibbons*, R.S. Canseco, J.L. Johnson, C.J. Russell, D.R. Notter, W.H. Velander, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Influence of time of gene microinjection on development and DNA detection frequency in bovine embryos. Transgenic Res. 3:226-231.

104. Gibbons, J.R.*, W.E. Beal, R.L. Krisher*, E.G. Faber*, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Effects of once versus twice weekly transvaginal follicular aspiration of bovine oocyte recovery and embryo development. Theriogenology 42:405-419.

105. Krisher, R.L.*, J.R. Gibbons*, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Gene microinjection into the germinal vesicle of bovine oocytes. Transgenics 1: 395-398.

106. Page, R.L.*, R.S. Canseco*, C.G. Russell*, J.L. Johnson, W.H. Velander, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Transgene detection during early murine embryonic development after pronuclear microinjection. Transgenic Res. 4:12-17.

107. Krisher, R.L.*, J.R. Gibbons*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and W.H. Eyestone. 1994. Frequency of detection of exogenous DNA 7, 14, and 21 days after microinjection of bovine zygotes. Animal Biotechnology 6:15-25.

108. Krisher R.L.*, J.R. Gibbons*, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1994. Nuclear transfer in the bovine using microinjected donor embryos: assessment of development and DNA detection frequency. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1282-1288.

109. Gibbons, J.R.*, R.L. Krisher*, S.K.Carlin*, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1995. In vitro embryo production after microinjection and ovarian dynamics following transvaginal follicular oocyte aspiration. Theriogenology 43:1129-1139.

110. Page, R.L.*, S. P. Butler*, A. Subramanian, F. C. Gwazdauskas, J.L. Johnson, and W. H. Velander. 1995. Transgenesis in mice by cytoplasmic injection of polylysine/DNA mixtures. Transgenic Res. 4:353-360.

111.  Paleyanda, R.K., W.H. Velander, T.K. Lee, D.H. Scandella, F.C. Gwazdauskas, J.W. Knight, L.W. Hoyer, W.N. Drohan, and H. Lubon. 1997.  Transgenic pigs produce functional human factor VIII in milk. Nature Biotechnology 15:971-975.

112.  Butler, S.P.*, K. Van Cott, A. Subrumanian, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and W.H. Velander. 1997. Current progress in the production of recombinant human fibrinogen in the milk of transgenic animals.  Thrombosis & Haemostasis 78: 537-542.

113.  Vancott, K.E., H. Lubon, C.G. Russell, S.P. Butler*, F.C. Gwazdauskas, J.W. Knight, W.N. Drohan, and W.H. Velander. 1997.  Phenotypic and genotypic stability of multiple lines of transgenic pigs expressing recombinant human protein C.  Transgenic Res. 6:203-212.

114.  Paleyanda, R. K., W. H. Velander, T. K. Lee, D. H. Scandella, F. C. Gwazdauskas, J. W. Knight, L. W. Hoyer, W. N. Drohan and H. Lubon.  1997.  Transgenic pigs produce functional human factor VIII in milk.  Nature Biotech. 15:971-975.

115.  Butler, S. P.*, K. van Cott, A. Subrumanian, F. C. Gwazdauskas, and W. H. Velander.  1997.  Current progress in the production of recombinant human fibrinogen in the milk of transgenic animals.  Thrombosis & Haemostasis 78:537-542.

116.  Krisher R.L.*, J.R. Gibbons*, and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  1998.  Effectiveness of Menuzo's B2 medium with buffalo rat liver cells for development of in vitro matured/in vitro fertilized bovine oocytes. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 15:50-53.

117.  Velander, W.H., J.W. Knight and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  1998.  Transgenic  pigs as bioreactors for therapeutic proteins.  In:  Mammary Gland  TransgenesisTherapeutic Protein Production. Castro and Janne (eds.).  Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 143-159.

118.  Weber, M.S.*, P.L. Boyle, B.A. Corl, E.A. Wong, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and R.M. Akers. 1998. Expression of ovine insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)  stimulates alveolar bud development in mammary glands of transgenic  mice. Endocrine 8:251-259.

119.  Johnson, A.O., P.F. Scanlon, R.J. Warren, D.F. Gibson, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and R.L. Kirkpatrick.  1998.  Thyroid relationships to voluntary food restriction in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus Virginianus).  Gibier Faune Sauvage.  15:675-682.

120.  Garst, A.S.*, S.K. Carlin*, J.R. Gibbons*, K.W. Kendrick*, R.E. Pearson, R.M. Akers, T.L. Bailey, W.H. Velander, H.K. Lubon, and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  1999.  In vitro embryo development of good and poor quality bovine oocytes following microinjection of DNA.  Transgenics.  2:371-382.

121.  Chauhan, M.S., S. Nadir, T.L. Bailey, A.W. Pryor*, S.P. Butler*, D.R. Notter, W.H. Velander, and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  1999.  Bovine follicular dynamics, oocyte recovery, and development of oocytes microinjected with a green fluorescent protein construct.  J. Dairy Sci.  82:918-926.

122.  Garst, A.S.*, S.F. Ball, B.L. Williams, C.M. Wood, J.W. Knight, H.D. Moll, C.H. Aardema, and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  1999.  Technical note: Machine milking of sows - lactational milk yield and litter weights.  J. Anim. Sci.  77: 1620-1623.

123.  Garst, A.S.*, S.F. Ball, B.L. Williams, C.M. Wood, J.W. Knight, H.D. Moll, C.H. Aardema, and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  1999.  Influence of pig substitution on milk yield, litter weights, and milk composition of machine milked sows.  J. Anim. Sci.  77: 1624-1630.

124.  Carlin*, S.K.,  A.S. Garst*, C.G. Tarraf, T.L. Bailey, M.L. McGilliard, J.R. Gibbons*, A. Ahmadzadeh, and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  1999.  Effects of ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration on oocyte recovery and hormonal profiles before and after GnRH treatment.  Theriogenology 51: 1489-1503.

 

125.  Kendrick, K.W.*, T.L. Bailey, A.S. Garst*, A.W. Pryor*, A. Ahmadzadeh, R.M. Akers, W.E. Eyestone, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  1999.  Effects of energy balance on hormones, ovarian activity, and recovered oocytes in lactating Holstein cows using transvaginal follicular aspiration.  J. Dairy Sci. 82: 1731-1740.

 

126.  Van Cott, K.E., S.P. Butler, C.G. Russekk, H. Lubon, F.C. Gwazdauskas, J. Knight, W.N. Drohan, and W.H. Velander, 1999. Transgenic pigs as bioreactors:  a comparison of gamma -carboxylation of glutamic acid in recombinant human protein C and factor IX by the mammary gland.  Genetic Anal: Biomol. Engin. 15: 155-160.

 

127.  Dalton, R.A., J. Walberg-Rankin, D. Sebolt, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1999. Acute carbohydrate consumption does not influence resistance exercise performance during energy restriction. Int. J. Sports Nutr. 9: 319 - 332.

 

128.  Gwazdauskas, F.C., K.W. Kendrick, A.W. Pryor, and T.L. Bailey. 2000. Impact of ovum pickup on folliculogenesis during lactation.  J. Dairy Sci. 83: 1625-1634.

 

129.  Weber, M.S., P.L. Boyle, B.A. Corl, E.A. Wong, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and R.M. Akers.  2001. Mammary synthesis of insulin-like growth factor-I in transgenic mice: milk composition and growth of suckling pups.  Transgenics 3: 143-152.

 

130.  Wojcik, J.R., J. Walberg-Rankin, L.L. Smith, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 2001. Effect of nutritional supplementation on glycogen resynthesis and muscle damage after eccentric resistance exercise.  Int. J. Sport Nutri. Exer. Met. 11: 406-409.

 

131.  Van Cott, K.E., H. Lubon, F.C. Gwazdauskas, J. Knight, W.N. Drohan, and W.H. Velander, 2001. Recombinant human Protein C expression in the milk of transgenic pigs and the effect on endogenous milk immunoglobulin and transferrin levels.  Transgenic Res. 10: 43-51.

 

132.  Walters, A.H., T.L. Bailey, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 2002.  Parity related changes in bovine follicle and oocyte populations, oocyte quality, and hormones to 90 days postpartum.  J. Dairy Sci. 85: 824-832.

 

133.   Walters, A.H., A.W. Pryor, T.L. Bailey, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas.  2002.  Production, endocrine, follicular and oocyte measures in early and mid lactation Holstein cows.  Theriogenology. 57: 949-961

 

134. Schmotzer, C.A., M.E. Dunlap-Brown, S.P. Butler, W.H. Velander, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 2003. Development of murine embryos following electroporation. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
20: 148-152.

135. Gwazdauskas, F. C. 2002. Stress - management induced, in dairy catle (a) Effects on health and milk production. In Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, Academic Press, London, UK pp 2604-2611.

136. Gwazdauskas, F.C. 2002. Reproduction - gamete and embryo technology: (e) Transgenic Animals. In Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, Academic Press, London, UK pp 1188-1193.

137. Gwazdauskas, F.C. 2002. Genetic modification of farm animals for biomedical application. Proc. 9th Int. Cong. Biootech. Anim. Reprod. Pp. 48-52.

138. Schmotzer, C.A., S.P. Butler, R.E. Pearson, W.H. Velander, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 2003.
Assessment of DNA expression following cytoplasmic microinjection of condensed DNA into murine embryos using electropulsation. Transgenics 4: 55-63.

139. Bolling, L.C., R.S. Pleasant, S.P. Butler, W.H. Velander, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 2003. An evaluation of sperm-mediated gene transfer in the pig. Transgenics 4: 77-86.

140. Wirtu,G., T.L. Bailey, M.S. Chauhan, W.B. Ley, N.A. Parker, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and J.J. Dascanio. 2004. Xenogenous fertilization of equine oocytes following recovery from slaughterhouse ovaries and in vitro maturation. Theriogenology 61: 381-391.

141. Gwazdauskas, F.C., A.H. Walters, M.L. McGilliard, S.F. Ball, N. Ellefson, S.S. Flesher, L.L. Keyes, W.F. Nicholson, K.S. Rosoff, K.A. Strahsmeier, M.R. Wheeler, I.A. Polejaeva, and D.L. Ayares. 2003. Behavioral comparisons of cloned and non-cloned pigs. J. Anim. Vet. Advances 8:430-436.

142. Miller, L. E., S. M. Nickols-Richardson, W. K. Ramp, F.C. Gwazdauskas, L. H. Cross, and W. G. Herbert. 2004. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Physician and Sports Med. 32: 18-24.

143. Walberg Rankin, J., L. P. Goldman, M. J. Puglisi, S. M. Nickols-Richardson, C. P. Earthman, F. C. Gwazdauskas. 2004. Effect of post-exercise supplement consumption on adaptations to resistance training. J. Amer. College Nutr. 23: 322-330.

144. Walters, A.H., W.E. Eyestone, R.G. Saacke, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 2004. Sperm morphology and preparation method affects bovine embryonic development. Andrology 25: 554-563.

145. Butler, S.P., T.K. O'Sickey, S.T. Lord, H. Lubon, F.C. Gwazdauskas, and W.H. Velander, 2004. Secretion of recombinant human fibrinogen by the murine mammary gland. Transgenic Res. 13: 437-450..

146. Walters, A.H., W.E. Eyestone, R.G. Saacke, R.E. Pearson, and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 2004. Bovine embryo development after IVF with spermatozoa having abnormal morphology. Theriogenology 63:1925-1937.

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Contact Information:

Address:
2070 Litton-Reaves Hall
Department of Dairy Science
Virginia Tech
Blacksburg, VA USA 24061-0315

Phone Number: (540) 231-4756

Fax number: (540) 231-5014

E-mail: GUAZ@VT.EDU